Scientific Tree invites all the Cancer & Oncotheraphy professionals and people interested in Oncotheraphy profession across the nations to submit their Abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 23 sessions on Cancer & Oncotherapy profession. Chose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session
During the nineteenth century, research in cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology has brought to light how molecules and processes allow cells to divide, grow, differentiate, and perform their essential functions. This basic knowledge of cell biology has led to practical discoveries about the mechanisms of cancer. Understanding the normal cell cycle processes and how they go wrong provides key information about the mechanisms that trigger cancer. Ability to control cell cycle is one of the causes for the development of cancer. Usually, some four to seven events are required for a normal cell to turn into a benign stage which at a later stage turns into invasive cancer. This session discusses the need for further research on cancer and cell biology to find out how well we can bring down the mortality rate on account of cancers.
Organ Specific Cancers are many. They are based on different types of cancers caused to the specific body organ such as breast cancer, brain cancer, cervical cancer, head & neck cancer, leukaemia, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, paediatric cancers, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, liver cancer, oral cancer, hodgkin's lymphoma, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), neuroblastoma, stomach cancer, gastric cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, gallbladder cancer and so on. All these types of cancers fall under Organ Specific Cancer. This session discusses specific organ type cancers and how they are dealt with by organ specific cancer specialists. This session further discusses the latest trends in research, treatment methodologies, and the application of lasers, nanotechnologies in treating organ specific cancers.
The genomics era began in the 1990s with the generation of DNA sequences of many organisms. Later in 21st century, the Human Genome Project enabled the study of functional genomics examining tumor genomes with cancer as main focus. Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. The first cancer genome was sequenced in 2008. It focuses on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. This study sequenced a typical acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) genome and its normal counterpart genome obtained from the same patient.
Imaging tests study the inside parts of your body. Imaging tests passes through energy like x-rays, sound waves, radioactive particles, or magnetic fields through your body. Your body tissues adapt to the energy patterns forming an image or a picture of that particular tissue. These imaging tests help pathologists and doctors to determine how healthy or affected your body parts are and with what diseases. Imaging tests are used in many ways for cancer detection at early stages, even when an affected person has no symptoms. Such early detection tests are called cancer screening tests. These imaging tests throw open to biopsy tests to determine whether a benign tumor is a cancer or not through a biopsy test. These imaging tests help radiologists to focus their radiation therapy. This session discusses further the advanced technologies and the latest applications such as laser technology, nanotechnology, and robotics in improvising the imaging tests a great deal.
A cancer biomarker is a substance or a process that shows the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or it may be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. A number of gene and protein based biomarkers are in use at some point in patient care delivery in Liver Cancer, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Melanoma etc. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) has detected that Mutant Proteins to be the most specific biomarkers for cancers, because they are supposed to come from an existing tumor.
Cancer pharmacology plays a vital key role in drug development. Cancer Pharmacology deals with developing experimental approaches to the clinical treatment of cancer through research that bridges the fields of molecular carcinogenesis, biochemical pharmacology, radiation biology, and clinical pharmacology. In both laboratory and clinic, cancer pharmacology has a great role to play in changing the face of drug development through experimental models and target orientated approaches. This session discusses and debates on strengthening the role of cancer pharmacology in laboratory and clinical experiments.
Hematology-oncology deals with the study of blood diseases and tumors and cancer tumors respectively. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases and cancer tumors play a great role in the study of hematology-oncology. Hematology-Oncology includes diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemophilia, and sickle cell disease, the thalassemias, leukemia and lymphomas, as well as cancers of other organs. This session discusses the role of Haematology-Oncology and how to provide the timely care to cancer patients and blood disease patients including children. The session further examines the diagnostic procedures and the application of latest technologies such as lasers, nanotechnologies and robotics in the diagnosis and treatment interventions.
Epithelial cells in diseases lead to cancers such as colonic cancer due to phase I and phase 2 proliferative lesions in colonic epithelial cells. The cells pass through specific phases during which they express increasingly abnormal proliferative characteristics. These proliferative cellular lesions arise in hereditary familial polyposis in individuals who develop isolated colonic neoplasms and its screening procedures are to be studied. The molecular lesions leading to persistent DNA synthesis, the interaction of suspected carcinogens, and the development of more effective chemotherapy and immunotherapy against the reactions leading to enhanced DNA synthesis are topics of importance at the present time. Epithelial ovarian tumors create from the epithelium, a layer of cells that covers the ovary. This session debates and discusses about Epithelial Cancers and the diagnostic procedures, the research, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the drug discoveries and interventions.
Renal Cell Carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, which is part of small tubes in the kidney that carry primary urine. The symptoms that cause renal cell cancer is weight loss, hypertension, night sweats. The initial treatment is not complete removal of the affected kidneys. But when the cancer has gone deeper into the tissues of the kidney or when the cancer has not spread to other organs, the survival rate is just seems to be 5 years. This session discusses in threadbare about renal cell cancers, the latest developments in diagnostic procedures, and the application of nanotechnologies, robotics and lasers in the treatment of renal ccell cancers.
Gynecologic oncology deals with cancers of the female reproductive system such as vaginal cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, and ovarian cancer. Millions of women across the globe suffer from gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic oncologists should provide supportive services like pain management, managing medical or surgical complications from treatment, preventing complications, including the multi-disciplinary care. This session focuses its attention on the gynecologic oncology and genital cancers and its related issues such as the preventive measures, early detection techniques, and the latest methodologies in pathology, diagnosis procedures, and the treatment interventions.
Cancer Stem Cells are cancer cells that are found within tumors or blood cancers, which have the characteristics to that of normal stem cells giving rise to all cell types found in particular cancer samples. Thus cancer stem cells are called tumor-forming or tumorigenic cancer cells. Therefore, development of specific therapies targeted at CSCs holds hope for improvement of survival and quality of life of cancer patients, especially for patients with metastatic disease. During the late 1990a, cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia. Ever since, there has been an intense cancer research focus.
Molecular Cancer deals with the cancer treatment interventions including diagnosis, preventive, pain management, chemotherapy, and therapeutics etc from a molecular point of view. The importance of genetic and molecular profiling of cancer and molecular targets, cancer stem cells, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, molecular virology cannot be ignored in treating molecular cancers. The use of appropriate replicates in cellular studies, the use of assays, animal models and relevant cell lines, relevant concentrations of agents, study of relevant structures of compounds This session discusses molecular cancer, the preclinical studies, development of novel therapeutic agents, mechanisms of drug action, drug resistance, biomarkers, the latest technologies, discovery of new drugs etc.
DNA damage has long been recognized as a factor for cancer development. Erroneous DNA repair leads to mutations or chromosomal aberrations affecting oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cells which undergo malignant transformation results in cancerous growth. Mutations in distinct DNA repair systems elevate the susceptibility to various cancer types. DNA damage comprises a root cause for cancer development and continues to provide an important avenue for chemo radiotherapy. This session further discusses about DNA repair systems in cancer prevention, and about genotoxins that are used in the treatment of cancer. This session discusses about the latest developments in DNA repair machineries leading to crucial improvements in cancer therapy.
Immunotherapy holds promise in changing lives of people suffering from various types of cancers such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, gastric cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer etc. Immunotherapy uses body’s own immune system to treat cancer. It makes immune system to remember cancer cells, which helps in long-lasting remissions. This is how the immunotherapy helps immune systems to eliminate cancer cells. Despite major advances in the field of vaccine technology and immunotherapy, there is not much headway made in clinical trials, which is a very depressing trend, yet. In fact, vaccines exist with potent antitumor potential, but still vaccinated patients are not in a position to mount robust vaccine-specific immune responses. This session discusses and debates on various aspects in immunotherapy cancer treatments, development of potent vaccines, the clinical studies, the latest technologies and applications in immunotherapy treating cancers.
The cancer therapy depends on the type of cancer one has. The therapy depends also on the stage of cancer, possible side effects, cost of the therapy, and other multidisciplinary treatment interventions. Once the diagnosis is done, the patients in consultation with their families or well-wishers should discuss about cancer therapies available. The therapies available for various types of cancers are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, active surveillance, palliative care, financial constraints, and insurance covers etc. The patient has also an option for going in for a second or third opinion. This session discusses what various options are available for patients, the latest treatment interventions, the latest drugs available, the application of laser technology, and nanotechnology available etc.
Drug delivery or Drug Transplantation Techniques deals with the administration or delivery system or drug transplantation of drugs to cancer patients, which include approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for delivering pharmaceutical compound into the body to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. The drug delivery system depends on the type of cancer, the stage of cancer, the health of the patient etc. Drug delivery system also considers the duration of drug presence and its dosage quantity, the way and the path of administration such as through the mouth known as non-invasive peroral, skin, transmucosal such as through nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular, rectal, and inhalation routes. But medications such as peptide and protein, antibody, vaccine and gene based drugs are not delivered through these routes. This session further discusses the innovative methods in drug delivery methods, and the latest technologies to be adapted in drug delivery system, especially to cancer patient.
Cancer screening is done to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This involves blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging. If cancer is detected, definitive invasive follow-up tests need to be performed to arrive at a final diagnosis, the subsequent treatment interventions. Selective screening helps identify people who are known to be at higher risk of developing cancer such as people with a family history of cancer. This session discusses that screening tests must be made more effective, safe, and well-tolerated with low rates of wrong results, the latest developments in early cancer screening, the advanced treatment procedures etc.
Chemotherapy is the means to treat any disease with drugs. Cancers are also treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy has the power to kill cancer cells that metastasizes to parts of the body away from the original tumor site. Chemotherapy has three main goals that of cure, control and palliative. Chemotherapy is administered to cure cancers completely. If that is not possible, chemotherapy is used to control the disease by shrinking tumors and stopping tumors from growing further. Chemotherapy is used as palliative care that is to improve the quality of life, in cases where drugs and control of cancers is not possible. This session discusses about the latest development in chemotherapy and its therapeutic effects, the methodologies of administration, controlling and palliative care etc.
Cancer Epidemiology deals with the study of factors that cause cancers of various types; the initiation, metastasis and prognosis, genetic and molecular epidemiology, gene-environment interactions, carcinogens etc. These factors enable and facilitate diagnosis; health disparities associated with cancer; and the type of treatment procedures including preventive medicines for cancer which include vaccines which are yet to see the light of the day. This session discusses various studies in cancer epidemiology, the advanced technologies that needs to be implemented in cancer epidemiology procedures.
The global market for cancer treatments is growing exponentially and may reach nearly $55 billion by 2021. Of all the cancers, breast cancer therapy is the largest market expected to reach $50 billion by 2021 according some estimates. These figures vouch for the rise in cancer incidences and the use of therapeutics as cure. Innovations and improvements in therapeutic markets promote the growth market.
Hormone therapies, gene expression modulators, Apoptosis inducers, immunotherapies, monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immunotherapies, cancer vaccines, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy including high process drugs contribute to the ever growing global market for cancer treatments. This session discusses the role of global market for cancer treatment interventions, and vaccines etc.
Clinical oncology enfolds the non-surgical aspect of oncology. 85% of all clinical oncologists treat patients with a balance of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Clinical oncologists are involved in the treatment of all types of cancer. They work intently in large multidisciplinary teams that focus on the treatment of cancer affecting parts of the body or systems. They treat patients and manage their cancer throughout the disease. This specialty gives the opportunity of developing clinical and scientific skills with great potential for academic and clinical research. Technologies in the field of clinical oncology are improving promptly. For example, some tumours can be treated with highly sophisticated precision external beam radiation therapy such as proton beam therapy. Some patients can be cured, but for others the emphasis is on effective palliative care and improving quality of life.
A nursing professional who specializes in caring for people with cancer is an Oncology nurse. They monitor physical conditions, prescribe medication, and administer chemotherapy and other treatments. Oncology is one of the most challenging and gratifying fields in nursing. The scope of oncology nursing extents from prevention and early stage diagnosis to treatment (such as surgical oncology, radiation oncology, medical oncology) through symptom management and palliative care. Oncology nurses have a cancer-specific knowledge base and clinical specialize in cancer. Oncology nurses must inspect numerous details about each patient and they must tend to several patients each day. One mistake could affect a patient’s health, so their attention to detail is critical.
Radiation Oncology embraces all aspects of research that influences on the treatment of cancer using radiation. The field of radiation oncology covers the integration of radiation therapy into multimodal treatment approaches. External Beam radiotherapy is delivered outside the body. This includes directing high-energy radiation beams at the area being targeted within the body using various radiotherapy machines. Brachytherapy is radiation applied directly into the target. It is highly effective because the radiation is concentrated on the disease rather than healthy surrounding organs. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody with specificity for a tumor- associated antigen labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a tumor cell. Systemic radiation therapy uses radioactive drugs to treat cancer systematically, in which the radioactive substance travels through the blood stream to reach cells all over the body.